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What is probably the earliest extant list of Frisian pagi is contained in the Traditiones Fuldenses which record donations to the monastery, probably dated to the 8th and 9th centuries, of property in Frisia in pago Wirense [also Wironi]in pago Nvirain pago Mecinga [Meringa]in pago Wisahain pago Tochingenin pago Federetgewein pago Ostrahe [Ostrache]in pago Lieronin pago Emergewe [Emisgowe]in pago Westrahe [Westeriche]in pago Kilingoin pago Tokingenin pago Hunergewein pago Wertingewein pago Lacharenorumin pago Tyesle [Tyelle]in pago Federgewein pago Waldahiin pago Lieren divides his list of Dutch pagi into three categories: Frisian, Saxon and Frankish.

The limited number of surviving primary sources suggests that these influences were not exclusive in the three areas he describes, but the categorisation represents as good a way as any.

Of the different entities named in these sources, Van den Bergh retains four: firstly, Hunsingo, north of Groningen along the North Sea coast between the river Hunse in the west and Fivilgo in the east, thirdly, Hugmerchi (Humerche or Humerke, or Humsterland), which lay south of the river Hunse, west of Middagsterland, east of the river Lauwers, marking the border with Oostergo, and north of Drenthe, under the original jurisdiction of the dukes of Frisia and all located in the area east of the river Ems in what is today the north-western corner of the German Land of Niedersachsen (where the county of Ostfriesland evolved in the late 14th/early 15th centuries).

Van den Bergh's second group of "Frisian" pagi consists of Oostergo (Ostraga) and Westergo (Westraga), which lay to the west and south-west of Groningen, between the rivers Lauwers and Vlie, in the present-day Dutch province of Friesland.

Early descriptions of pagi and counties in this area include Altfrid's Vita S.

Liudgeri, which records that "in gente Fresonum ab orientali parte fluminis Labeki" there were five pagi "Hugmerchi, Hunusga, Fivilga, Emisga, Federitga" and one island "Bant".

The Annales Fuldenses record the baptism of "Herioldus cum uxore et magna Danorum multitudine" at Mainz It is clear that the Carolingian Frankish kings of Lotharingia did not relinquish their claim to jurisdiction over Frisia despite Viking encroachment, as shown by the Annales Bertiniani which record that Emperor Lothaire I gave Frisia to his son the future King Lothaire II in 855After Godefrid was killed in 885, the emperor appointed the Saxon Graf Eberhard as duke and, after Eberhard was murdered in 898, his brother Meginhard was appointed.


The pacification process must have been slow and subject to setbacks.Van den Bergh further sub-categorises the "Frisian" category of pagi into three groups.


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